1. Which of the following barriers to problem solving is defined as an availability heuristic?
preferring information that confirms preexisting positions or beliefs, while ignoring or discounting contradictory evidence
judging the likelihood or probability of an event based on how readily available the other instances of the event are in memory
persisting in using problem-solving strategies that have worked in the past rather than trying new ones
tendency to think of an object functioning only in its usual or customary way
1. Which type of intelligence declines over the life span?
1. In order for any test to be scientifically acceptable it should meet three basic requirements: standardization, reliability, and validity. Which of the following defines reliability?
a measure of the stability of test scores over time when test is given to the same person at different times using test-retest or split-half method
predicts human behavior in different circumstances in order to determine its truthfulness
giving a test to a large number of people to develop the norms for the test and ensuring the procedures for administering the test are formalized so that all people who administer the test do so in exactly the same way
refers to how well the test measures what it is intended to measure to understand the underlying psychological construct
1. Which parenting style helps children to become high achieving, self-reliant, well-adjusted, and socially competent?
1. In Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development, the reflection on the past, acceptance of and satisfaction with life is dependent upon successfully resolving which of the following challenges?
ego integrity vs. despair
generativity vs. stagnation
intimacy vs. isolation
identity vs. role confusion
1. In Kohlberg’s theory, which of the following stages of moral development is characterized by obeying the rules based on reciprocity in obtaining rewards?
1. Which theory of aging postulates that a natural decrease of social contacts occurs because older adults prefer valuable and meaningful interactions with significant others?
cognitive-emotional selectivity theory of aging
socioemotional selectivity theory of aging
disengagement theory of aging
activity theory of aging
1. Social learning theory suggests that learning gender roles is
a passive process
a mediation process
a self-reflection process
an active process
1. According to a drive reduction theory of motivation,
level of arousal determines our performance in satisfying needs
internal factors push people in certain directions to satisfy their needs
external factors pull people in certain directions to satisfy their needs
attributions and expectancies determine our motivation to satisfy needs
1. Which of the eating disorders is characterized by consumption of large quantities of food, vomiting, purging, and excessive exercise?
Binge eating disorder
1. Schatcher and Singer theory of emotions postulates that
physiological arousal and emotion occur simultaneously when thalamus sends message to the cerebral cortex and autonomic nervous system
movements of facial muscles produce or intensify our subjective experience of emotions
emotion depends of physiological arousal and cognitive labeling of that arousal
subjective experience of emotion results from physiological arousal that precedes it
1. Which of the following is the CORRECT order of events in the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion?
Perception of event – perception of body response – emotion
Perception of event and emotion simultaneously – body response
Perception of event – physiological response and emotionsimultaneously
Perception of event – emotion – body response
1. Which of the defense mechanisms is characterized by not recognizing own unacceptable impulses and overemphasizing their opposite?
1. In Rogers theory of personality, adjustment is the result of
acceptance of self with no contingencies attached
incongruence between self-concept and life experiences
an incompatibility between self-concept and self-esteem
congruence between self-concept and life experiences
1. Anxiety disorders include
phobias, panic attacks, selective mutism
delusions and hallucinations
fatigue, sadness, insomnia
grandiosity, rush of energy, distractability
1. Someone who experiences grandiosity, excessive talking, racing thoughts, and agitation has a
attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder
1. Symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorders include
hypomania, agitation, insomnia, irrational investments, and inattention
dissociation, depersonalization,derealization, and obsessive thoughts
hallucinations, delusion, catalepsy, unusual mannerisms, and social withdrawal
avoidance, irritability, startle response, anhedonia, and amnesia
1. Which disorder has the symptoms of sadness, fatigue, loss of interest, feelings of worthlessness, guilt, indecisiveness?
1. Which thinking patterns that underlie some disorders are changed with cognitive-behavioral therapy?
rationalization, repression, dissociation
task shifting, prioritizing, flattening
magnification, overgeneralization, selective perception
compulsion, racing thoughts, referencing
1. Bipolar disorder is best treated with